Followers

Thursday, December 6, 2012

KOREAN HISTORY: Jürgen Hinzpeter's 1980 Documentary Film on Gwangju Massacre and 2012 S. Korean Movie "26 Years"


<웬디의 요청에 따라 아래의 영어 본문을 한국어로 번역했습니다. 영어 본문이 끝나는 부분에 실었습니다저는 영어를 빼어나게 잘하는 사람이 아닌데도, 일단 영어로 쓴 걸 한국어로 옮기려니 제가 쓴 글인데도 결과물이 번역본처럼 영 어색합니다. 감안하시고 읽어 주십시오.>


It was not until I went to college that I realized the inconvenient truth: that it really had happened. Of course, once or twice while growing up, I had overheard conversations on the "riot" that had risen, instigated by the barbaric North Korean regime, somewhere in S. Korea. One day, while watching the military parade held in commemoration of the Armed Forces Day on TV, this friend of mine mentioned something about the merciless airborne troops. She said, pointing her finger at the airborne troops parading on TV, "Look at them. Look at their red bloodshot eyes. I heard they are really scary." So I asked her why they were scary and she said she didn't know exactly why but she had overheard her parents saying something like that - like they killed people. It later turned out that her parents were from Gwangju. But I just shrugged off her comments 'cause I couldn't believe our nation's proud military would do such things to its own people. And I was just an ingenuous youth!

So, I was greatly shocked when I had the chance, in college, to learn the truth about the Gwangju massacre through books, pictures, and films. And I was really sorry. I was sorry that I had not known that the people of Gwangju had paid a dear price for our nation's democracy and for me; and I was sorry that I had taken democracy and freedom for granted without knowing that they were earned by the blood of the people who had lived in the turbulent times before me. And I was angry with myself for having been completely fooled.

Up until 1997, the inconvenient truth had been buried by the shameless dictator Chun Doohwan and his long-time friend and coup accomplice Roh Taewoo, both of whom were Park Chunghee's favorite underlings. In 1993, Kim Youngsam became S. Korea's first directly and freely elected, civilian president. Kim's presidency came with his untidy compromise - he merged his party with Roh Taewoo's ruling party, which is now represented by Park Geunhye, the daughter of the dictator Park Chunghee. Now that Kim colluded with the corrupt, Chun and Roh could easily get away with their past crimes with a mere formality.

During the ten years of Kim Daejung's and Roh Moohyun's civilian democratic government (1998~2008), Chun had maintained a low profile while living high on the hog with money and properties he had extorted and confiscated from South Korean people while in office. However, when Lee Myungbak, associated with Chun's former party, was elected president in 2008, Chun started strutting around; and now that Park Geunhye became the leader of the party and its presidential nominee in 2012, he is back on his high horse again. As I mentioned above, Chun was Park Chungee's favorite underling hence has maintained a very close relationship with Park Geunhye: She calls him "oppa." And not only is she about to pick up Chun's endorsement in the 2012 presidential election but she received 600 million won (approx. 600K US dollars) from him in 1980 after her father's assassination. The money was, of course, from the public purse and its current value is 30 billion won (approx. 30 million US dollars).


Chun Doohwan laughs with Lee Myungbak.
Chun Doohwan shakes hands with Park Geunhye.


Greatest Threat to Democracy is Uneducated Citizenry

In the divided Korean peninsula, South Korean version of McCarthyism has been the only and best weapon for former military regimes and corrupt governments to suppress the voice of the people. And lately, they started making the absurd, shameless allegations again that North Korea's special operations forces were secretly sent to Gwangju in 1980 to instigate the "riot." In these momentous times when the daughter of former dictator and her followers are about to rise back to power, I found some hope while reading the news that more than a million people have seen the movie "26 Years" less than a week since its release. FYI, the movie is based on Kangfull's 2006 on-line comic by the same title which is a "faction," based on the 1980 Gwangju Massacre. Thomas Jefferson once said, "The greatest threat to democracy is uneducated citizenry.” I hope tens of millions of people will watch it and learn something from history. 

Now, let's first watch KBS television documentary "Blue-eyed Witness, May of 1980" (with English subtitles), aired on May 18, 2003, in the first year of Roh Moohyun government, to commemorate the Gwangju pro-democracy protest. This film was made based on the videos filmed and produced by Jürgen Hinzpeter, a retired German journalist and witness to the event.



KBS Documentary: Blue-eyed Witness, May of 1980 (Part One)
Aired on May 18, 2003

KBS Documentary: Blue-eyed Witness, May of 1980 (Part Two)
Aired on May 18, 2003


FACTS

On May 13, 2005, Gwangju Pro-democracy Protest-Bereaved Families Association and the May 18 Memorial Foundation released the official estimates of the number of victims of May 18: 606 deaths.  165 people died during the event (May 18 through 27), 65 people are still missing and presumed dead, and 376 people were wounded and later died. Among the 165 people who died during the event, 126 died of gunshots, 9 were killed by bayonet stabs, and 17 were beaten to death by the soldiers. The average age of the people killed was 27.5. 41 people were students and 30 of them were under 18 (Korean age): 13 college students, 11 high school students, 6 middle school students, and 2 elementary students. The youngest victim was a two-year-old (Korean age). 1,394 people were arrested and among them, 427 were indicted.  Among 427 people indicted, 7 were executed and 12 were sentenced to life imprisonment. Among 23 soldiers killed during the event, 13 soldiers died in the friendly-fire incidents, which disproves then-military claim that significant numbers of soldiers were killed by the armed civilians. (NoCut News)

The following video was made with a song from Kim Kwangseok's 1998 posthumous album and pictures taken during and after the Gwangju pro-democracy protest, in remembrance of the victims and their families of the event.





Related Posts:
Once Upon a Time in South Korea... National Security 1985 and 26 Years
Singer Lee Seunghwan and Cartoonist Kangfull Talk About "26 Years"
Music Video of the Song "Flower" from the Soundtrack of "26 Years" Unveiled
MBC’s “I AM a Singer” Season 2 (4)


블로그내 관련글4·19 학생혁명, 5·16 군사반란, 12·12 군사반란, 그리고 5·18 광주민주화운동


유르겐 힌츠페터의 1980년 광주항쟁 다큐멘터리 그리고 2012년 한국영화 “26


대학에 들어 가서야 나는 그 일이 실제로 일어났던 일이라는 사실을 알게 됐다. 물론 내가 어른이 되는 동안 한 두번 쯤은, 극악무도한 북한 괴뢰의 사주로 한국의 어디에선가 폭동이 일어난 적이 있었다는 식의 이야기를 우연히 들어 본 적은 있었다. 하지만 이와는 대조되는 예를 들자면, TV에서 중계되는 국군의 날 행사에서 행진을 하는 군인들을 함께 보던 친구가 무자비한 공수부대에 관해 얼핏 이야기를 꺼낸 경우가 있었다때마침 행진을 하던 공수부대를 가리키며 내 친구는 저 사람들 좀 봐. 저 눈에 뻘겋게 핏발 선 것 좀 봐. 정말 무시무시한 사람들이라더라.”  그 얘길 듣고 난 왜 그 사람들이 무시무시한 지를 물었고 친구는 자기도 이유는 잘 모르겠지만 아무튼 공수부대가 사람들을 죽였다는 그런 비슷한 얘기를 자기 부모님이 하는 걸 우연히 들었다고 했다. 후에 알게 된 바로는 친구의 부모님은 광주 출신이셨다하지만 나는 그런 친구의 말을 그다지 새겨 듣지 않았다. 우리 나라의 자랑스런 국군이 자국민에게 그런 짓을 할 리는 없다고 생각했기 때문이다.  그때 난 세상물정을 모르는 애였으니까!

그래서 대학에 들어가 책과 사진, 그리고 영상물을 통해서 광주 학살의 진실을 알게 됐을 때, 난 엄청난 충격에 휩싸였다. 정말 미안했다.  우리 나라의 민주주의와 나를 위해 광주 시민들이 그렇게 비싼 값을 치루었다는 사실을 모르고 있었다는 게 미안했다. 험한 세상을 나보다 앞서 살다가신 분들의 피와 바꾼 민주주의와 자유를 당연한 것으로 여기며 살아온 것 또한 미안했다. 그리고 그렇게 철저하게 속아 넘어갔던 나 자신에 대해 화가 났다.

1997년이 될 때까지 광주의 불편한 진실은 후안무치한 독재자 전두환과 그의 오랜 친구이자 쿠데타 동지인 노태우에 의해 꽁꽁 숨겨져 있었다. 이 두 사람은 박정희의 총애를 받던 부하였다. 1993년 김영삼은 직접, 자유 선거로 당선된 대한민국 최초의 민간인 대통령이 되었다. 하지만 그에게는 약점이 있었다바로 자신이 이끌고 있던 제2야당인 민주당과 김종필의 공화당, 그리고 집권여당이었던 노태우의 민정당을 합당하는 3당 야합을 통해 대권을 잡았다는 사실이다. 이 민정당은 현재 독재자 박정희의 딸인 박근혜가 이끄는 새누리당의 조상인 셈이다. 김영삼이 부패세력과 야합함으로써 전두환과 노태우는 약간의 요식행위를 통해 과거의 죄상에 대한 면죄부를 손쉽게 얻게 되었다.

김대중과 노무현의 민간인 민주정권 10년 동안(1998~2008), 전두환은 줄곧 저자세를 유지했다. 물론 자신의 집권 기간 동안 민간에서 갈취하고 몰수한 재산으로 떵떵거리며 호의호식하고 살았지만 말이다. 하지만 2008년 전두환의 민정당을 이어받은 한나라당 소속의 이명박이 대권을 잡게 되면서 전두환은 기지개를 켜기 시작했다. 그리고 독재자의 딸 박근혜가 한나라당이 이름만 바꾼 새누리당의 2012년 대선 후보로 선출되면서 이제 다시 기세가 등등해지고 있다. 앞서 말한 것처럼 전두환은 박정희가 총애하던 부하였기 때문에 박정희의 딸인 박근혜와 아주 가까운 사이다. 박근혜가 오빠라고 부를 정도로게다가 대권 후보인 박근혜에 대한 전두환의 지지선언이 임박했을 뿐 아니라 지난 1980년 박정희 암살 직후 박근혜가 전두환으로부터 6억원이라는 어마어마한 돈을 받아 챙겼다는 사실이 밝혀졌다물론 이 돈은 개인 재산이 아닌 국가 재산이었으며 현재 시가로 약 300억원에 달하는 거액이다.



대한민국 수구세력의 계보

친일파 자유당 공화당 민정당 민자당 신한국당 한나라당 새누리당



민주주의의 가장 큰 위협은 무지한 국민이다


한국화된 맥카시즘이야말로 분단된 한반도에서 국민의 소리를 억누르기 위해 군사독재정권이나 부패한 정권이 쓸 수 있는 가장 효과적이고 유일한 방법이 되어 왔다그리고 최근 저들은 후안무치하고 어처구니없는 주장을 다시 시작하고 있다.  1980년 폭동을 사주하기 위해 북괴가 특수부대를 비밀리에 광주에 남파했다는 것이다. 독재자의 딸과 그 배후세력들이 다시 한번 권력을 쥘 수도 있는 이런 중차대한 시기에 나는, 개봉 일주일도 안 돼서 영화 26년을 본 관객이 벌써 백만을 넘었다는 뉴스를 읽으며 약간의 희망을 보았다. (참고로 이 26년은 만화가 강풀이 1980년 광주항쟁을 모티브로 그린 동명의 2006년작 웹툰 일종의 팩션 을 바탕으로 한 영화이다.)  토마스 제퍼슨은 민주주의의 가장 큰 위협은 무지한 국민이라고 말했다나는 수천만 관객이 이 영화를 관람하고 역사에서 무언가를 배울 수 있기를 소망한다.

아래의 비디오는 노무현 정권 첫 해인 2003 5 18, 광주 민주화 운동을 기리기 위해 KBS에서 방영했던 다큐멘터리 “1980 5, 푸른 눈의 목격자이다이 영상은 은퇴한 독일 기자이자 광주 항쟁의 목격자인 유르겐 힌츠페터가 촬영하고 제작한 영상을 바탕으로 만들어졌다.


역사적 사실


2005 5 13,  5.18민주유공자 유족회와 5.18기념재단은 5.18 관련 희생자 통계를 공식 발표했는데  총 사망자는 606명으로 추정됐다그 중 165명은 항쟁 당시 (1980 5 18일에서 27일 사이) 숨졌고, 행방불명으로 사망한 것으로 추정되는 사람이 65, 항쟁 당시 부상을 당하고 이후에 사망한 사람이 376명에 달한다.  항쟁 당시 사망한 165명 가운데 126명이 총상, 9명이 자상으로, 17명이 맞아서 숨졌다.  165명 사망자의 평균 연령은 27.5세였고 그 중 41명이 학생이었으며 18세 이하가 30명이나 되었다대학생이 13, 고등학생이 11, 중학생이 6, 심지어 초등학생도 2명 사망했다.  최연소 사망자의 나이는 2세였다.  1,394명이 구속 연행되었고 그 중 427명의 기소자 가운데서 7명이 사형을 당했고 12명이 무기형을 선고 받았다계엄군 사망자 23명 중 13명은 부대간 오인사격으로 인해 숨진 것으로 확인되었고 이로써 "무장한 시민군에 의해 계엄군 상당수가 숨졌다"는 그동안의 주장이 잘못됐음이 드러났다. (NoCut News)

다음의 비디오는 광주의 희생자들과 그 가족들을 기리기 위해 만들어졌다이 비디오는 김광석의 1998년 유작 앨범 수록곡인 부치지 않은 편지와 광주 항쟁 관련 사진들로 이루어졌다.


11 comments:

  1. I know basically nothing about SK history. It's interesting to learn about this. Which side of the story do the newer generation now hear in schools? Do the general public sympathize with P. Geun Hye for the upcoming election?

    There is something very similar that happened in my origin country, and no investigation / reevaluation that I know of seem to have happened. There are just various rumors and 'theories'. Since the most influential figure and possibly decision maker of that time has died without saying anything, I doubt that truth will come out.

    ReplyDelete
  2. During Lee Myungbak's administration, for the past five years, students have been taught nothing or very little about dictators, pro-democracy protests, or even the Japanese occupation of Korea (like sex slaves, aka, comfort women). News Link It's basically because the politicians associated with Rhee Syngman's Liberal Party (1919~1925) to Park Chunghhe's Democratic Republican Party (1962~1979) to Chun Doohwan & Roh Taewoo's Democratic Justice Pary (1980~1993) to Kim Youngsam's Democratic Liberal Party (1993~1998), and to Lee Myungbak and Park Geunhye's Grand National/Saenuri Party (2008~) were pro-Japanese collaborators before and during the Japanese occupation and are their descendants.

    However, as I borrowed Thomas Jefferson's words, "The greatest threat to democracy is uneducated citizenry,” in my post, the biggest problem in S. Korea is its younger generations don't really care about history or democracy. For one, student-led activism had died down during the civilian democratic era of Kim Daejung's and Roh Moohyun's administraion (1998~2008) because there was no need, to simply put it. And for two, due to the extreme socio-economic bipolarization and materialism since the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the college students have been so absorbed in money and also in their own future that they cannot afford to pay any attention to other things. For example, they voted for Lee Myungbak in the 2007 presidential election in spite of his BBK scandal BBK Scandal and in spite of the fact that he had 14 previous convictions only because he was a CEO-turned-politician and promised better economy.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Thank you Onsemiro for that concise and indepth background. I'd like to share your post on Han Hye Jin's cafe which will also be read by Koreans whose command of English may not be so good. Was wondering if you would like to also include your text in Korean under the same post...

    ReplyDelete
  4. Wendy, a Korean version of the post was just added. :)

    ReplyDelete
  5. Thanks for the explanation, I have since wikied some of the names to know more. It is even dangerous as most of us are under the illusion that we are living under a democratic government while in fact it is just a facade.

    Just for laughs, (really not meant to provoke you), I can also conclude from your posts that fan clubs are scarier than the government! Since you posted about continuing propaganda by the gov but avoided discussing entertainment companies in in-depth. Not that I blame you. I am continuously amazed by the power of netizens in Korea. Perhaps if they focus their efforts in uncovering corruption instead...

    ReplyDelete
  6. Wahyimo, exactly! I also really hope they focus their efforts in uncovering corruption instead.

    BTW, in fact, a corrupt, totalitarian government is scary beyond our imagination who have never experienced it, especially as grown-ups. And most of the time, the followers of a dictator are as scary as the regime itself. They are like blind religious believers. And so are the fan clubs. I can criticize the corrupt, totalitarian governments with facts and logic but can never do the same thing with the believers of dictators or (idol) stars. Yet, I avoided discussing entertainment companies not because I was scared (even though I said it was the reason, haha) but the fact of the matter is, because 99% of my knowledge about them is not proven facts - it's partly my speculation, partly others' opinions, and partly online rumors. But discussing about the fan clubs? Yes, I'm definitely scared and I don't think it's a wise thing to do 'cause it will never make them open their eyes. But more than anything else, I don't feel the need to do so 'cause the fans are not killing anyone as dictators and their followers. They're also enjoying the time of their lives and I think it's kinda cute. :) But I really hope they will become more aware of their current events and history in context.

    ReplyDelete
  7. (Hilee Enamored)

    Onsemiro, thanks, as always, for your many interesting posts.

    I had not seen that documentary before and found it very interesting. In the back of my mind, as I was watching it and saddened by the horror that the people went through at that time, I was thinking that it was at least fortunate that the German journalist was able to get through it safely. But then at the end I learn that he too paid quite a price for his efforts.

    ReplyDelete
  8. Hilee Enamored, Hinzpeter is now fighting cancer. According to this Korean blogger living in Germany, he still misses Bulgogi and Kimchi, and the "mountains and streams" of S. Korea. And recently, he even put an ad for a S. Korean nurse to take care of him. I really, really hope he gets well soon. http://blog.daum.net/joon7423/12376516

    ReplyDelete
  9. (Hilee Enamored)

    That's sad to hear. I too hope he makes a quick recovery.

    For those interested, an article came out just today in the Korea Herald (related to the elections) that illustrates how the events in Kwangju are still echoing strongly 32 years later.

    http://nwww.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20121209000182

    ReplyDelete
  10. Today (December 12, 2012), S. Korea marks the 33rd anniversary of the dictator Chun Doohwan's 1979 coup and the movie "26 Years" has so far garnered over 2 million viewers as of today.

    ReplyDelete

REPORT VIDEO ERRORS: If any of the videos uploaded here is no longer available, please report it in the comment so that it can be fixed or replaced.